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APPLE II HISTORY
===== == =======

Compiled and written by Steven Weyhrich
(C) Copyright 1991, Zonker Software

 (APPENDIX B: APPLE II TIMELINE)
[v1.0 :: 21 Sep 92]


     The AppleII Timeline gives an overview of many of the events mentioned in the AppleII History, as well as some others that are not discussed.  The dates given for the various entries found here are as accurate as I can make them, based on the sources cited in the bibliography that follows.  In some cases I could come no closer to the correct date than the year in which it happened.
     In the case of the various versions of AppleII disk operating systems:  For DOS I chose to use the date found on the HELLO program on System Masters; for ProDOS8 I chose to use the date displayed when it starts up; and for GS/OS I chose the dates it was first announced in Open-Apple or A2-Central.  The dates they were completed and the dates they were available are sometimes several months apart.
     One other thing that may make some of these dates slightly inaccurate is the difference between a product "announcement", "introduction", and "release".  Something may be "introduced" on one date, but not available or "released" until a later date (the IBM PCjr comes to mind).  If anyone cares to correct me on any of these points, please feel free to contact me with your information source, and I will be glad to make the change.

     "Ladies and gentlemen, the History of the AppleII Time-Sweep.  Every number one event, in order, beginning in January, 1971.  Sit back, for the Greatest (Computer) Hits of All Time!"



====
1971
====

Intel introduces the 4004 microprocessor.

Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs start their first joint business venture, selling "blue boxes" (capable of making "free" long distance phone calls) at the Berkeley dorms.



====
1972
====

Intel introduces the 8008 microprocessor. 



====
1973
====

Intel introduces the 8080 microprocessor. 



====
1974
====

Motorola introduces the 6800 microprocessor. 


     1974 March 

Scelbi-8H microcomputer introduced. 


     1974 April 

Steve Jobs begins work at Atari. 


     1974 May 

Mark 8 introduced, the first home-built computer kit.


     1974 October 

"Creative Computing" starts publication. 



====
1975
====

     1975 January 

Altair 8800 introduced. 


     1975 February 

Zilog announces the Z-80 microprocessor. 


     1975 March 

First meeting of Homebrew Computer Club. 


     1975 April 

Scelbi-8B (business) computer introduced. 

Bill Gates and Paul Allen write the first BASIC interpreter for a microcomputer (the Altair 8800).  It is shipped on paper tape. 


     1975 September 

"Byte" begins publication. 



====
1976
====

Miscellaneous Events of 1976:

 --MOS Technology introduces the 6502 microprocessor.
 --Processor Technology introduces the Sol ($995 in kit form).
 --Cromenco sells the TV Dazzler ($215), a color graphics card for the Altair.
 --Shugart introduces its 5.25 inch floppy disk drive for $390.
 --"Dr. Dobb's Journal Of Computer Calisthenics And Orthodontia" begins publication.
 --Electric Pencil by Michael Shrayer, the first word processor for microcomputers, is released.
 --The first version of Adventure for microcomputers is translated by Crowther and Wood from mainframe versions.


     1976 April 

Wozniak and Jobs form the Apple Computer Company on April Fool's Day. 

Wozniak's 6502 computer, later known as the Apple Computer or the Apple I, is introduced to the Homebrew Computer Club in Palo Alto, California.


     1976 July 

The Apple I is delivered for sale at the Byte Shops ($666.66).  It required the addition of a power supply and keyboard. 


     1976 August 

Wozniak completes prototype of the AppleII.  Chris Espinosa begins working on games and demonstration software for it. 


     1976 October 

Wozniak is persuaded to leave Hewlett-Packard and work at Apple full-time.



====
1977
====

Miscellaneous Events of 1977:

 --The Horizon introduced by North Star Computers, with a Z-80, 16K RAM, one 5.25 drive, 12 S-100 slots, and built-in serial I/O ($1999)
 --H-8 Computer introduced by Heathkit as a kit, with an 8080 processor.
 --MITS, the company that started it all with the Altair 8800 in 1975, is sold to Pertec Computer Corp.
 --CP/M, written by Gary Kildall, first released by Digital Research. Eventually becomes the standard operating system for the first generation 8080 and 8088 microcomputers.  The name stands for "Control Program for Microcomputers".


     1977 January 

Apple incorporates, with Intel veteran Mike Markkula as its first chairman.  He helps them obtain venture capital to get the business going.

Apple moves from the garage owned by Steve Jobs' parents to a building on Stevens Creek Boulevard in Cupertino, California.


     1977 April 

AppleII introduced at the First West Coast Computer Faire, with BASIC in ROM, color video, low and high resolution graphics, built-in speaker, game paddle inputs, and seven slots for peripherals.  It is expandable to 48K RAM.  

Commodore PET introduced, with a 6502 processor, 4K RAM, 14K ROM, and 8K Microsoft BASIC.


     1977 May 

First AppleII boards ship. 

Byte Magazine publishes an article by Steve Wozniak called "The AppleII".  It gives a hardware and firmware description of the computer.


     1977 June 

First AppleII systems ship.  Standard configuration included 4K of memory, two game paddles, and a demo cassette with programs, costing $1,298.  Home televisions are usually used for monitors.


     1977 August 

TRS-80 introduced by Radio Shack, with a Z-80 processor, 4K RAM, and 4K ROM.


     1977 September 

Wozniak, Espinosa, and Wigginton have to discontinue their attendance at the Homebrew Computer Club; work at Apple is now taking up all of their time.


     1977 October 

Applesoft I, a 6502 version of BASIC purchased from Microsoft, is released on cassette.

"SWEET 16: The 6502 Dream Machine", by Steve Wozniak, is published in Byte magazine.  It describes the 16-bit computer emulator he included in the AppleII Integer BASIC ROM.

"Micro" begins publication.


     1977 November 

Apple Parallel Printer Interface Card released. 


     1977 December 

Wozniak begins work on a floppy disk drive and controller.



====
1978
====

Miscellaneous Events of 1978: 

 --Exidy sells the Sorcerer ($895), with a Z-80, 8K RAM, 12K ROM, and serial, parallel, and cassette interfaces.  It could use plug-in ROM cartridges and had user-definable characters. 
 --Epson releases the MX-80, one of the first low-cost dot-matrix printers.


     1978 February 

"AppleII Reference Manual" (also known as the "Red Book") released.

"Call-A.P.P.L.E." begins publication. 


     1978 April 

AppleII Communications Card released. 


     1978 May 

Applesoft II released on cassette, adding hi-res graphics commands.


     1978 June 

Disk II floppy disk drive introduced (DOS 3, still buggy, not released).


     1978 July 

Apple DOS 3.1 released.


     1978 August 

AppleII Serial Interface Card released. 


     1978 September 

Apple sells 7600 computers in fiscal 1978. 



====
1979
====

Miscellaneous Events of 1979: 

 --Intel introduces the 8088 processor.
 --Orange Computer, one of the first AppleII clones, appears at the Third West Coast Computer Faire. 
 --Atari 400 and 800, with a 6502 processor, finally ship late this year (they were announced in 1978).  The Atari 400 had a membrane keyboard, and the 800 came with 8K expandable to 48K, and both could take ROM cartridges.
 --TI-99/4 computer by Texas Instruments is introduced ($1150), including a 16-bit TMS9900 processor, a color monitor, and a poorly designed keyboard. It was slow, and the company kept a tight reign on peripheral and software cartridge support, which made it difficult for third parties to support it.
 --Hayes Microcomputer Products begins selling the Micromodem 100 for S-100 bus computers, one of the first modems that had a direct connect line for the phone rather than sending and receiving the tones through the handset.
 --Compuserve and The Source begin service to general computer users.
 --A database program called Vulcan by Wayne Ratliff appears; it later is known by the name dBase II.


     1979 February 

Apple President Mike Scott tells Apple employees not to use typewriters any longer; only computers are to be used for all office functions.

DOS 3.2 released.


     1979 June 

AppleII Plus introduced. 

Applesoft Firmware Card released for AppleII, making it possible for these older computers to use Applesoft.

Apple Silentype printer (which used thermal paper) introduced.


     1979 July 

DOS 3.2.1 released.


     1979 August 

Apple Pascal and the Language System released. 


     1979 September 

Apple sells 35,100 computers in fiscal 1979. 


     1979 October 

VisiCalc released by Personal Software, Inc.



====
1980
====

Miscellaneous Events of 1980: 

 --Sinclair Research introduces the ZX80 (sold in Great Britain), with Z-80 processor, with 1K RAM, 4K ROM (integer BASIC), and a membrane keyboard.  It is the first microcomputer to cost less than $200.  Its successor, the ZX81, is later sold as the Timex-Sinclair in the U.S.
 --Commodore introduces the VIC-20, with a 6502A processor, 5K RAM, BASIC in ROM, serial, cassette, and modem interfaces, and color.  It could take program cartridges, and sold for $299.
 --Radio Shack introduces the TRS-80 Color Computer, with a 6809 processor, and capability of taking ROM program cartridges.
 --Digital Research announces CP/M-86.
 --WordPerfect announced for Data General computers.
 --Personal Software introduces Zork for the Apple II, an advanced version of the old game Adventure.


     1980 January

"Nibble" begins publication.


     1980 May 

Online Systems begins business with the game Mystery House, the first hi-res graphics adventure for the AppleII. 


     1980 June 

Sirius Software begins business. 


     1980 July 

Broderbund Software begins business. 


     1980 August 

Apple DOS 3.3 released.


     1980 September 

AppleIII introduced.  It had the 6502B processor, came with a built-in disk drive and four peripheral slots, and sold for $3495.


     1980 September 

Apple sells 78,100 computers in fiscal 1980. 


     1980 September 

"Softalk" begins publication. 


     1980 October 

"Apple Assembly Line" begins publication. 


     1980 November 

Apple reorganizes.  Mike Markkula becomes President and CEO, and Mike Scott becomes Vice-Chairman.


     1980 December 

Apple's initial public stock offering; 4.6 million shares were purchased.



====
1971
====

Miscellaneous Events of 1981: 

 --Osborne 1 Portable computer introduced, with Z-80 processor, 64K RAM, two serial interfaces, two 5.25 disk drives, 5-inch monitor built-in, and a large selection of software sold with it ($1795).
 --The Alto is developed by researchers at Xerox PARC, and was the inspiration for Steve Jobs in his design for the Macintosh
 --Timex-Sinclair 1000 sold for under $100 in the U.S.
 --Atari VCS and Mattel Intellivision home video games introduced.


     1981 January 

Apple Super Serial Card released. 

Steve Jobs, blocked from working on the Lisa computer project, discovers the Macintosh project that Jef Raskin has been developing, and begins to assemble a team to advance work on it.

The problems causing AppleIII's to mysteriously fail are identified, and steps are taken to correct them.

     1981 February 

Wozniak is injured in plane crash, begins leave of absence. 

"Black Wednesday" at Apple.  Forty employees are fired in the wake of problems with the AppleIII and other projects.


     1981 March 

Apple's first million dollar shipping day.


     1981 April 

Steve Jobs becomes chairman of Apple Computers, Inc.


     1981 May 

Work begins on custom AppleII chips, and the AppleIIe project begins. 


     1981 June 

Central Point Software releases Copy II Plus v1.0.


     1981 July 

Mike Scott leaves Apple. 


     1981 August 

IBM PC introduced.


     1981 September 

Apple sells nearly 180,000 computers in fiscal 1981. 


     1981 September 

Apple introduces the Profile 5 MB hard disk for the AppleIII, for $3499.


     1981 December 

AppleIII re-introduced after solution of technical problems. 



====
1982
====

Miscellaneous Events of 1982: 

 --Intel announces the 80286 processor.
 --Franklin Ace 100, an AppleII clone, introduced.
 --Compaq Portable introduced, one of the first IBM PC compatible computers sold.
 --Commodore 64 introduced, with a 6510 processor, 64K RAM, 20K ROM with Microsoft BASIC, color and custom sound chips, and serial interface ($595).
 --Kaypro introduces the Kaycomp II portable, with 9-inch screen and software included, to compete with the Osborne.
 --Radio Shack introduces the TRS-80 Model 16, with both 68000 and Z-80 processors, 128K RAM, and 8-inch disk drive ($4999).
 --Lotus 1-2-3 introduced.
 --"Time" magazine names the computer as its "Man Of The Year" for 1981.


     1982 February 

Steve Jobs appears on cover of Time.


     1982 March 

Apple announces it will take legal action against Asian makers of AppleII clones.

Epson's MX-80 and MX-100 printers are becoming popular as inexpensive dot-matrix printers.


     1982 May 

Apple sues Franklin Computer Corporation for patent and copyright infringement. 


     1982 June 

Business Solutions introduces The Incredible Jack, the first integrated software program for the AppleII.  It did word processing, personal filing, mailing labels, and had spreadsheet ("Calc") functions.  It ran under DOS 3.3 and worked on the II Plus.


     1982 September 

Apple stops announcing publicly how many systems it sells per year. 

Steve Wozniak holds the first "US Festival".


     1982 October 

Apple Dot Matrix Printer ($699), and Apple Letter Quality Printer ($2195) released. 


     1982 November 

First AppleFest opens in San Francisco. 

Bank Street Writer released by Broderbund Software.


     1982 December 

AppleIIc project begins. 

Apple throws a "Billion Dollar Party" for its employees to celebrate the milestone of being the first personal computer company to reach a $1 billion annual sales rate. 



====
1983
====

Miscellaneous Events of 1983:

 --Radio Shack introduces the portable TRS-80 Model100 ($800) and the Tandy2000, which has a 80186 processor.
 --Coleco introduces the Adam computer, a game machine with detached keyboard, cassette interface, and printer, which fails to gain any impact on the home computer market as they had hoped it would.
 --Hewlett-Packard HP150 introduced, with 8088 processor and a touchscreen feature
 --Microsoft Word introduced.


     1983 January 

AppleIIe ($1395) and Lisa ($9995) announced. 

QuickFile IIe and Apple Writer IIe released with the AppleIIe.

"inCider" begins publication. 

"A+" begins publication.

ORCA/M DOS 3.3 assembler, written by Mike Westerfield, released by Hayden Software.


     1983 February 

Apple UniFile and DuoFile disk drives for the AppleIII announced.  Also called the Apple 871 drive, it used disks with a capacity of 1702 SOS blocks (which were the same size as ProDOS blocks).  They were to sell at $1000 for the UniFile, and $1700 for the DuoFile.  The drives were advertised as being ideal for backing up the ProFile 5 MB hard drive for the AppleIII.  Undoubtedly they didn't move to the AppleII during the post-AppleIII era because the smaller 3.5 inch drives were coming for the Mac, and had the potential of holding 800K of data (almost as much as these) and would cost less. 


     1983 March 

IBM PC-XT introduced. 

Lotus 1-2-3 replaces VisiCalc as the best-selling computer program in America.


     1983 April 

John Sculley joins Apple as President and CEO; Mike Markkula becomes Vice-Chairman.


     1983 May 

Apple makes the Fortune 500 list. 

"Kids Can't Wait" program begins, in which Apple donates 9000 computers to California public schools. 

Steve Wozniak holds second (and final) US Festival.


     1983 June 

Millionth AppleII produced. 

Wozniak returns to Apple. 

First 16-bit AppleII project ("IIx") begins. 


     1983 September 

Osborne Computer Corporation files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.


     1983 October 

ProDOS v1.0

IBM PCjr introduced, but is not available until early 1984. 


     1983 November 

AppleWorks introduced.

BASIC.SYSTEM v1.0


     1983 December 

AppleIII Plus introduced. 

Apple ImageWriter printer introduced ($675), replacing the Apple Dot Matrix Printer.

AppleIIe sales for the holiday season are very brisk.



====
1984
====

Miscellaneous Events of 1984:

 --IBM PC-AT introduced, with 80286 processor, 256K RAM, and a high density disk drive ($5469).
 --Hewlett-Packard introduces the LaserJet laser printer.
 --Lotus introduces Symphony, an integrated package for MS-DOS.
 --Commodore buys Amiga Corp.


     1984 January 

ProDOS v1.0.1 

Macintosh introduced ($2495).  

The infamous "1984" commercial that introduces the Macintosh is run during the 1984 Super Bowl.

Lisa becomes Lisa 2.

Apple and Franklin settle out of court. 


     1984 February 

ProDOS v1.0.2 


     1984 March 

AppleIIx project cancelled. 


     1984 April 

AppleIIc introduced ($1295) at "AppleII Forever" event, along with the Apple Scribe color printer ($299).

AppleIII and III Plus discontinued. 


     1984 May 

Broderbund Software announces The Print Shop.

Apple Duodisk floppy disk drive unit introduced for the AppleII ($795); older Disk II drive discontinued.

AppleMouse II released.


     1984 June 

BASIC.SYSTEM v1.1 

Apple Color Plotter released ($779). 

Apple ImageWriter Wide Carriage version introduced ($749).


     1984 August 

ProDOS v1.1 

Basic design work on Mega II chip completed. 

"Softalk" ceases publication, succumbing to bankruptcy.

IBM PC AT introduced. 


     1984 September 

ProDOS v1.1.1 

Apple passes the $1 billion mark for its fiscal year.

Macintosh 512K ("Fat Mac") introduced. 


     1984 October 

Discussions about 16 bit AppleII are revived. 


     1984 November 

Two millionth AppleII sold. 

Apple buys every page of advertising in the election year issue of "Newsweek" magazine.

Apple's "Test Drive A Mac" campaign begins.

First Class Peripherals introduces the Sider, the first low-cost hard drive for the AppleII, offering 10 MB for $695.


     1984 December 

AppleColor 100 Monitor introduced.  It is Apple's first RGB monitor, with a switch that changes to a monochrome display mode, and a motorized screen tilt feature. 



====
1985
====

Miscellaneous Events of 1985:

 --Intel introduces the 80386 microprocessor.
 --Commodore introduces the Amiga 1000, with the ability to do multitasking ($1295).
 --Atari 520ST introduced.
 --Toshiba introduces the T1100 laptop.
 --Tandy Model 200 laptop introduced.
 --Lotus buys Software Arts, and stops sales of VisiCalc.
 --Aldus PageMaker introduced for Macintosh.


     1985 January 

Apple's annual stockholder meeting almost totally ignores the AppleII, despite having its best sales quarter ever, while concentrating on the Macintosh.  Leaves the AppleII division demoralized.

Apple LaserWriter laser printer and AppleTalk introduced as part of the Macintosh Office System.

Macintosh XL announced.  (It is a refitted Lisa with an internal hard drive).

"Open-Apple" begins publication. 


     1985 February 

Wozniak leaves Apple to start a new company, CL9.

Wozniak and Jobs receive National Technology Medal from President Reagan. 


     1985 March 

Enhanced AppleIIe introduced. 

Sculley asks employees to take a week of vacation and announces that Apple's manufacturing plants will close for one week, to work off excess inventory.


     1985 April 

Addison-Wesley Publishing takes over printing of Apple manuals.

Macintosh XL discontinued. 

IBM PCjr discontinued. 


     1985 May 

Apple reorganizes again, bringing the AppleII and Macintosh product groups together.  Steve Jobs is ousted from day-to-day management, and made a chairman with no responsibilities. 


     1985 June 

Apple lays off 1200 employees and records a loss of $40 million, its first and only quarterly loss as a public company. 


     1985 June 

Apple UniDisk 5.25 introduced. 


     1985 July 

AppleLink network goes into service (for use by Apple Computer and registered developers only).


     1985 August

"Creative Computing" ceases publication (approximate date).


     1985 September 

Apple UniDisk 3.5, Memory Expansion Card, Catalyst introduced.

Apple ImageWriter II introduced ($595).  It can print MouseText, and in color.

Apple ColorMonitor IIe and IIc introduced ($399).  It displays composite color (not RGB) but can still produce readable 80-column text.

Jobs resigns as chairman of Apple to start a new company, NExt, Inc.  Several Apple employees resign from Apple to join him. 

Apple sues Jobs, alleging that he breached his duties as chairman and misappropriated proprietary information. 


     1985 October 

"Micro" ceases publication.

General Electric starts GEnie online service.  The American Apple Roundtable (AART) for the AppleII begins at the same time.

Franklin Computer returns with the ACE 2000, a new IIc/IIc compatible ($699), with a detachable keyboard, numeric keypad, and graphics characters similar to MouseText.


     1985 November 

AppleIIc UniDisk 3.5 upgrade announced.

Microsoft Windows 1.0 announced.



====
1986
====

Miscellaneous Events of 1986: 

 --Microsoft Works introduced for Macintosh.


     1986 January 

Macintosh Plus and LaserWriter Plus introduced.

John Sculley leaves PepsiCo and becomes Chairman of Apple.

Apple and Jobs reach out-of-court settlement. 

Applied Engineering introduces the Transwarp accelerator for the AppleII.


     1986 February 

Jobs sells all but one share of his Apple stock, leaving Mike Markkula as the largest shareholder. 


     1986 March

Central Point Software introduces the Laser 128 computer ($395).  It is similar to the AppleIIc, but includes a single expansion slot and a numeric keypad.


     1986 September 

AppleIIGS and Apple 3.5 Drive introduced ($999).

AppleIIc Memory Expansion version introduced, with IIc Memory Expansion card.  Apple IIe 128K price reduced.

AppleII SCSI controller card and Apple Hard Disk 20SC introduced.

Apple RGB Monitor ($499), Apple Monochrome Monitor ($129), and AppleColor Composite Monitor ($379) introduced.

ProDOS 16 v1.0 introduced; original ProDOS becomes ProDOS 8 v1.2.

Apple Programmer's and Developer's Association (APDA) created. 


     1986 November

Penguin Software, a pioneer in removal of copy protection, changes its name to Polarware (Penguin Books objected to the use of the name).


     1986 December 

ProDOS 16 v1.1 



====
1987
====

Miscellaneous Events of 1987: 

 --Commodore introduces Amiga 2000 and 500 models.


     1987 January 

ProDOS 8 v1.3 

Platinum AppleIIe with built-in keypad introduced ($829). 


     1987 February

AppleII SCSI Card revision B released (fixes problems when trying to use the card on the IIGS).


     1987 March 

Macintosh SE and Macintosh II introduced. 


     1987 April 

ProDOS 8 v1.4 

IBM PS/2 line introduced, with the first version of their OS/2 operating system.


     1987 May 

AppleIIGS System Software v2.0 


     1987 June 

Pecan Software releases FORTRAN for the AppleIIGS. 


     1987 July

Claris, a software company spun-off from Apple, is announced.  It will handle AppleWorks and Macintosh software previously sold by Apple.


     1987 September

AppleIIGS ROM 01 upgrade.


     1987 October 

Beagle Bros introduces the TimeOut series of enhancements for AppleWorks.


     1987 November 

Applied Engineering introduces the PC Transporter.


     1987 December 

AppleIIGS System Software v3.1 released.  It is the first version with the Finder.

BASIC.SYSTEM v1.2 



====
1988
====

Miscellaneous Events of 1988: 

 --Intel introduces the 386SX processor.
 --Memory chips are in short supply, and therefore quite expensive.
 --dBASE IV introduced.
 --A "worm" is accidentally released into the ARPANet computer network, and causes significant problems at 6000 sites across the country; 


     1988 January 

AppleIIc Revised Memory Expansion version released.

Apple's LaserWriter II family introduced.

Timeworks introduces Publish-It!, the first serious desktop publishing program for the AppleII. 


     1988 March 

AppleCD SC (CD-ROM drive, $1199) introduced for both the Macintosh and AppleII.  Also introduced were the AppleII SCSI Card RevC (supporting partitioning on large capacity disk drives), and the AppleII Workstation Card ($249) to allow the AppleIIe to connect to AppleTalk.

Tom Weishaar (Open-Apple) begins as manager of the AppleII Roundtables on the GEnie online service.


     1988 April 

ProDOS 8 v1.5 


     1988 May 

AppleLink-Personal Edition introduced (later to become America Online). 

"Apple Assembly Lines" ceases publication.

Zip Technologies introduces the Zip Chip at AppleFest.  It is a 4 MHz accelerator on a single chip.


     1988 June 

ProDOS 8 v1.6 


     1988 July

AppleIIGS System Software v3.2; it is the first version that can boot over an AppleTalk network.


     1988 August 

ProDOS 8 v1.7 


     1988 September 

AppleIIGS System Software v4.0 introduced.  It is the first version to be called GS/OS, and is written entirely in 16-bit code.

AppleIIc Plus introduced ($675, or $1099 with color monitor). 

Macintosh IIx and FDHD (SuperDrive) introduced. 

Zip Chip finally available for shipment. 


     1988 October 

Claris, having bought the rights to StyleWare's program GS-Works, modifies and releases it as AppleWorks GS.


     1988 November 

Applied Engineering introduces the Transwarp GS accelerator.


     1988 December 

A.P.P.L.E. (Apple Pugetsound Program Library Exchange) changes it official name to TechAlliance; among other reasons is Apple Computer's dislike of other companies using "their" name.

"Open-Apple" changes its name to "A2-Central" for similar reasons.

Apple Computer purchases the Apple Programmers and Developers Association (APDA) from A.P.P.L.E. Co-op.

Steve Jobs announces the NeXT computer.



====
1989
====

Miscellaneous Events of 1989:

 --GRiD Systems announces the GRiDPad, a handwriting-recognizing pad.


     1989 April 

AppleII Video Overlay Card introduced. 


     1989 May 

Roger Wagner Publishing releases HyperStudio, the first AppleIIGS hypermedia product.

"A+" ceases publication, merges with "inCider" to become "inCider/A+".


     1989 June

ProDOS 8 v1.8 

BASIC.SYSTEM v1.3  (It was a buggy version, however, that had to be later replaced).

Claris announces AppleWorks 3.0.


     1989 July

First A2-Central Developer's Conference.

AppleIIGS System Software v5.0 released.


     1989 August 

AppleIIGS ROM 03 introduced. 

BASIC.SYSTEM v1.4 


     1989 September 

"Call-A.P.P.L.E." ceases publication.

Macintosh Portable and Macintosh IIci introduced. 


     1989 December

AppleIIGS System Software v5.0.2 released.



====
1990
====

Miscellaneous Events of 1990: 

 --Motorola introduces 68040 processor.
 --IBM introduces the PS/1.
 --Commodore introduces the Amiga 3000 ($3300).
 --Microsoft introduces Windows 3.0.


     1990 March 

AppleII High Speed SCSI card introduced. 

Macintosh IIfx introduced. 


     1990 May

Vitesse releases the Quickie hand scanner for the AppleIIe and IIGS.


     1990 June 

BASIC.SYSTEM v1.4.1 


     1990 July

Second A2-Central Developer's Conference (KansasFest).


     1990 August 

ProDOS 8 v1.9 

Apple buys back Claris Corporation as a wholly-owned subsidiary.


     1990 October 

Macintosh Classic, Macintosh LC, and Macintosh IIsi introduced.  The Mac Classic replaces the Mac Plus and Mac SE. 


     1990 November

"The IIGS Buyer's Guide" ceases publication.


     1990 December 

AppleIIGS System Software v5.0.3.  It fixes some bugs and speeds up the ImageWriter driver.  However, there were problems with this driver under low memory situations, so it was not widely distributed. 

AppleIIc Plus and ImageWriter LQ discontinued.

Zip Technologies releases the Zip GS cards to accelerate the AppleIIGS.

1990 AppleII Achievement Awards held at AppleFest.



====
1991
====

     1991 January 

Apple introduces HyperCard IIGS.


     1991 February

AppleIIGS System Software v5.0.4 released.


     1991 March

AppleIIe card (for Macintosh LC) released ($199).

Westcode introduces InWords, which allows text digitized with the Quickie hand-scanner to be turned into ProDOS text files.


     May 1991

Apple StyleWriter ($599) and Apple Personal LaserWriter LS ($1299) released.  Neither works on the Apple II or IIGS at the time of this release.


     June 1991

AppleCD SC Plus, faster than the original CD-ROM drive, released ($799).


     July 1991

Third A2-Central Developer's Conference (KansasFest).

Apple IIGS System Software v6.0 announced.


     September 1991

Apple's first User Group Television live satellite broadcast.  A new Apple IIGS is almost announced, but the project is killed by Apple management at the last minute.


     November 1991

SuperDrive interface card for Apple II released.  It can use 1.4 MB capacity 3.5 disks on an Apple IIe or IIGS, making it possible (when translation software is made available) to read and write even MS-DOS disks.



====
1992
====

     March 1992

Apple IIGS System Software v6.0 released.  It includes a driver to allow the Apple StyleWriter printer to be used on the IIGS.


     April 1992

1991 Apple II Achievement Awards presented (a little late).


     July 1992

Fourth A2-Central Developer's Conference (KansasFest).

Apple IIGS System Software v6.0.1 announced.


=====================================================


***********************
* TIMELINE REFERENCES *
***********************


-----.  "A.P.P.L.E. Co-op Celebrates A Decade of Service", CALL-A.P.P.L.E., Feb 1988, pp. 12-27.

-----.  "Apple and AppleII History", THE APPLEII GUIDE, Fall 1990.

-----.  "Back In Time", A+ MAGAZINE, Feb 1987, pp. 48-49.

-----.  "The Marketplace", CALL-A.P.P.L.E., Jun 1984, pp. 74-75.

-----.  "The Marketplace", CALL-A.P.P.L.E., Sep 1984, p. 58.

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Ahl, David H.  "The First Decade Of Personal Computing", CREATIVE COMPUTING, Nov 1984, pp. 30-45.

Bernsten, Jeff.  GEnie, A2 ROUNDTABLE, Apr 1991, Category 2, Topic 16.

Chien, Philip.  "The First Ten Years: A Look Back", THE APPLE II REVIEW, Fall/Winter 1986, p. 12.

Cochran, Dan.  "Introducing APDA", CALL-A.P.P.L.E., Sep 1986, pp. 9-10.

Connick, Jack.  "...And Then There Was Apple", CALL-A.P.P.L.E., Oct 1986, p. 26.

Cox, John.  "The Apple Mouse //", CALL-A.P.P.L.E., May 1984, pp. 34-38.

Deatherage, Matt.  "The Operating System", THE APPLEII Guide, Fall 1990.

Doms, Dennis.  "Apple acquires Claris", OPEN-APPLE, Aug 1990, p. 6.50.

Doms, Dennis.  "AppleFest Long Beach", A2-CENTRAL, Jan 1991, pp. 6.89-6.90.

Doms, Dennis.  "Farewell, Old Friend", OPEN-APPLE, Jan 1990, p. 5.89.

Doms, Dennis.  "Miscellanea", OPEN-APPLE, Dec 1990, p. 6.84.

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Fillmore, Kent.  GEnie, A2 ROUNDTABLE, Sep 1991, Category 2, Topic 16.

Freiberger, Paul, and Swaine, Michael.  "Fire In The Valley, Part I (Book Excerpt)", A+ MAGAZINE, Dec 1984, p. 61-62.

Freiberger, Paul, and Swaine, Michael.  "Fire In The Valley, Part II (Book Excerpt)", A+ MAGAZINE, Jan 1985, p. 45-51.

Geenen, Donald.  "FORTRAN-77 Forever!, CALL-A.P.P.L.E., Mar 1989, pp. 20-26.

Gray, Stephen B.  "The Early Days", CREATIVE COMPUTING, Nov 1984, pp. 6-14.

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Platt, Robert, and Field, Bruce.  "A.P.P.L.E. Doctor", CALL-A.P.P.L.E., Nov 1987, p. 58.

Prosise, Jeff.  "A Decade Of MS-DOS", PC MAGAZINE, Sep 24, 1991, pp. 232-233.

Rose, Frank.  WEST OF EDEN: THE END OF INNOCENCE AT APPLE COMPUTER, Penguin Books, New York, 1989.

Rubin, Charles.  "The Life & Death & Life Of The AppleII", PERSONAL COMPUTING, Feb 1985, p. 73.

Schwarz, Emile.  "The AppleIIGS System Software Version 5.0", THE APPLEII Guide, Fall 1990.

Smarte, Gene, and Reinhardt, Andrew.  "15 Years Of Bits, Bytes, And Other Great Moments", BYTE, Sep 1990, pp. 369-400.

Stechow, Tom.  GEnie, A2 ROUNDTABLE, Aug 1991, Category 2, Topic 16.

Suther, Kathryn.  "The Inside Track", CALL-A.P.P.L.E., Dec 1988, p. 9.

Tommervik, Al.  "AppleIIe: The Difference", SOFTALK, Feb 1983, pp. 118-127, 142.

Weishaar, Tom.  "Apple announces file sharing, CD-ROM", OPEN-APPLE, Apr 1988, pp. 4.17-4.18.

Weishaar, Tom.  "Apple Manuals Liberated", OPEN-APPLE, Apr 1985, p. 1.26.

Weishaar, Tom.  "Control-I(nterface) S(tandards)", OPEN-APPLE, Oct 1987, pp. 3.65.

Weishaar, Tom.  "Demoralized AppleII Division Announces Enhanced IIe...", OPEN-APPLE, Apr 1985, pp. 1.25-1.27.

Weishaar, Tom.  ": FLASH :", OPEN-APPLE, Dec 1985, pp. 1.89.

Weishaar, Tom.  "Mainframe genie at your service", OPEN-APPLE, Feb 1988, pp. 4.1-4.2.

Weishaar, Tom.  "Miscellanea", OPEN-APPLE, Oct 1985, pp. 1.76.

Weishaar, Tom.  "Miscellanea", OPEN-APPLE, Mar 1986, p. 2.10.

Weishaar, Tom.  "Miscellanea", OPEN-APPLE, Oct 1986, p. 2.67.

Weishaar, Tom.  "Miscellanea", OPEN-APPLE, Nov 1986, p. 2.74.

Weishaar, Tom.  "Miscellanea", OPEN-APPLE, Mar 1987, p. 3.12.

Weishaar, Tom.  "Miscellanea", OPEN-APPLE, Aug 1988, p. 4.50.

Weishaar, Tom.  "New $999 Apple IIGS Arrives", OPEN-APPLE, Oct 1986, pp. 2.65-2.67.

Weishaar, Tom.  "Open-Apple becomes A2-Central", OPEN-APPLE, Dec 1988, p. 4.84.

Westerfield, Mike.  GEnie, (Personal E-mail), Sep 1991.

Weyhrich, Steven.  M.A.C.H. NEWS, Dec 1990, "What's New From Apple", p. 1.

Williams, Gregg.  "'C' Is For Crunch", BYTE, Dec 1984, pp. A75-A78, A121.

Williams, Gregg.  "The Lisa Computer System", BYTE, Feb 1983, p. 43.

Worth, Don, and Lechner, Pieter.  BENEATH APPLE DOS, Reseda, CA, 1981.

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