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*                                     *
* PART VII - ASSEMBLERS               *
*       WRITTEN BY DR. FIRMWARE       *
*                                     *

Assemblers are used for easily writing 
up code from mnemonics to hex. To do   
this by hand is tedious, to say the    
least, and eventually one will make an 
error here or there.

Mnemonics are the codes that we have   
been using, like 'LDA'. Since these do 
not signify the addressing mode, there 
is a set of symbols that are normally  

To indicate immediate addressing mode, 
we put a '#' in front of the arguement.
To indicate absolute addressing mode,  
we just put the address. To indicate   
indexed absolute mode, we put the base 
address followed by a comma and the    
indexing register. Here is a short list
of the conventions:

LDA #$00           -IMMEDIATE
LDA $0000          -ABSOLUTE
LDA $0000,X        -ABSOLUTE IND. X
LDA $0000,Y        -ABSOLUTE IND. Y
LDA $00            -ZERO PAGE
LDA $00,X          -ZERO PAGE,X
LDA $00,Y          -ZERO PAGE,Y
LDA ($00,X)        -INDIRECT,X
LDA ($00),Y        -INDIRECT,Y
JMP ($0000)        -INDIRECT
INX                -IMPLIED
ASL A              -ACCUMULATOR

The modes will be fully explained      
further down.

Here'S a simple program in assembly    

(1)        (2)     (3)       (4)
          ORG     $300       Start at $300
COUT      EQU     $FDED      COUT stands for $FDED
          LDX     #$0C       Load X with length.
LOOP      LDA     TEXT,X     Load A with a chr.
          JSR     COUT       Gosub chr output at $FDED
          DEX                Decrement X by 1.
          CPX     #$00       Is it zero yet?
          BNE     LOOP       If not goto to 'LOOP'
          RTS                Else end.
                             - ASCII chrs for my name.

The columns denoted by the numbers in  
brackets are as follows: (1) label     
field, (2) operator field, (3)         
arguement field, and (4) comment field.


Labels are used in assembly language to
simplify things. The label 'PLOTIT'    
means a lot more than $27A5. Note that 
labels are all one word, no spaces.

In this program, the label 'LOOP' is   
used to denote a specific place in the 
program. In the branch statement,      
'LOOP' is refered to, and when the     
program is assembled, the address in   
memory where 'LOOP' will be is the     
address the argument the statement will

The operator field.

This is where the mnemonics are. The   
main part of the program is here.      
However, you might have noticed the    
'ORG' and the 'ASC'. These are 'psuedo-
ops'. These pseudo-ops tell the        
assembly program needed information    
such as the address where the program  
is supposed to run.

There are many pseudo-ops, and since   
each assembly program has thier own, it
would be hard to cover all of them. So,
refer to any manuels that you've copied
with your software.

Arguement field.

This field is where the arguements for 
the operators are, if there need to be 
any given. The arguments need not to be
hex numbers any more. One can use      
labels for everything, if it pleases   
you. But in general, since main point  
of assembly programs is to let the     
programmer program and not mess around 
with (yucky) hex numbers, labels in    
this field seem to be the way to go.

Comment field.

This field is to help narrate your     
program, that is, to help someone who  
is reading it (including yourself at   
times, i'm sure). Of course one can put
things like editorials or dirty msgs   
here, but each to his own.

In this column, i will be using a nice 
mix of psuedo-ops and comments, so, if 
this program doesn't work as typed, sue

Ok, with that out of the way, here is  
a description of the previously        
mentioned addressing modes.

Zero page.

Zero page is somewhat special because  
the MSB of all the bytes is $00. For   
this mode, there is only one arguement 
byte. This byte is the LSB of the      
address and you will get addresses like

When indexing zero page with either X  
or Y, the resulting address is always  
smaller than $100. For example,        
LDA $45,X when X holds $FF will read   
address $44 and put it in the          
accumulator. The logic goes thus: $45+ 
$FF= $144. Because the result is       
greater than $100, the one at the front
is dropped and all you have left is    


This is a goto-like command in m.l. and
can be considered as such. The command 
has 2 argument bytes and these         
represent the address where program    
execution will continue in the form    
LSB MSB. Note the address to jump to is
backwards just like the LDA command in 
absolute mode.

Indirect jump.

The indirect jump is variation on the  
JMP, such that the argument forms an   
address from where the actual 'jump to'
address is found. (Both in MSB LSB     

Suppose there was such an incident:

300: JMP ($800)
800: $00 $20

($800 Contains $00 and $801 contains   

From $300, the argument gives $800. The
program goes and gets $800 and $801 and
re-arranges them to give $2000. Then   
the program jumps to $2000 and         
continues execution.

A very useful command at times.

Well, unfortunately the indirect       
commands will have to wait 'til next   

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